Most Western music can be traced back to the Chromatic Scale as it is the foundation of all of the scales and chords that we use. It is the mother of all scales due to the fact that it is pregnant with scales (Ewww).
Every scale is in there if you disregard certain notes. Both the pentatonic and major scale are in there as well as many others.
It contains 12 notes that are an equal distance apart or in other words, all the black and white keys on a piano.
Both examples above are referred to as the “C Chromatic Scale” because they start and end on the note “C”. C is considered their Root Note, which is the starting note from which any scale or chord is created.
If we were to start these examples on the note E they would then become the “E Chromatic Scale” as illustrated below.